Write short notes on the biochemical changes that are found in chronic hepatic diseases in the dog.

 

1a
OR
1b You are presented with a thin 12-year-old neutered female cat with a one month history of weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Despite these signs the cat’s appetite has remained satisfactory. On clinical examination the heart rate is 180 per minute.
• List 5 (five) conditions from which this cat might be suffering. (25%)
The next day routine serum biochemistry and haematology demonstrate marked azotaemia and hyperphosphatemia. The owner is keen for you to treat the cat to the best of your ability. The cat is not sufficiently dehydrated to warrant hospitalisation.
•              Name 3 (three) major complications that may develop in this cat in the coming months.(30%)
•              Name 5 (five) therapeutic options that are available for this cat (in the UK). For each option

provide reasons for the use of this option and any possible complications. (45%)

2a You are called to see a 5-year-old Holstein cow that calved, unassisted, yesterday. This morning she is dull, unwilling to stand, is off her food and has an enlarged back left udder quarter.   The cow has a heart rate of 100 beats per minute and no rumen turnover. You suspect the cow has peracute E. Coli mastitis.
•      Outline the pathophysiology of this condition. (15%)
•      How would you assess the animal’s condition further and how could you confirm the diagnosis? (30%)
•      Describe in detail how would you treat this animal? (40%)
•      What advice would you give the client on preventing the disease occurring in another cow in the future? (15%)
OR
2b Your client has a flock of 40 pedigree Texel ewes, lambing indoors in January, to produce pedigree rams sold for breeding. Over several years the flock has had problems with lameness, particularly in the older ewes, but also in the rams being prepared for sale. The client suspects foot rot, although some of the growing lambs are also troubled with scald. The client asks you to help in controlling the number of lameness cases and has read in a farming journal that it is possible to eliminate foot rot, and wants to try to achieve this.
•        Describe the clinical signs that would confirm the client’s diagnosis in each group of animals. (20%)
•        Detail the methods you would use to control footrot in this flock. (80%). You may summarise your plans by means of a table or diagram.
3a You are called to visit a large commercial livery yard to see an 8-year-old 16 hands Warmblood gelding, that has recently been purchased by a new owner. It is used for recreational riding and has been vaccinated against equine influenza. The horse has developed a cough and bilateral nasal discharge since arriving on the yard. You suspect that the animal may have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO).
•              Give 3 (three) reasons why you think this disease has become evident after purchase. (20%)
•      Outline the significant findings you would expect on clinical examination of an animal with COPD. (20%)
•      What are the medical treatment options for this disease? (30%)
•              What advice would you give the client regarding managing the disease in the future? (30%)
OR
3b Describe the clinical signs and abnormalities on routine haematology and biochemistry that are commonly seen in canine parvovirus infection. (40%)
• How would you confirm a diagnosis of canine parvovirus? (10%)
•              Describe how you would treat a dog with clinical signs of a parvovirus infection. (25%)
•              List 5 (five) reasons for parvovirus infection to occur in an apparently vaccinated animal.For each reason give an example. (25%)

MEDICINE

SECTION B (answer all questions)

 

  1. Write short notes on the pathophysiology of warfarin poisoning in dogs and cats.

 

  1. Describe the radiographic changes that you would expect in a case of megaoesophagus in the dog.

 

  1. Write short notes on the biochemical changes that are found in chronic hepatic diseases in the dog.

 

  1. Write short notes on the management of mitral valve disease in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.

 

  1. Write short notes on the treatment options for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

 

  1. List 6 (six) major causes of chronic weight-loss in goats in the UK (50%) and briefly outline how they

can be differentiated (50%).

 

  1. Outline the aetiology of Atrophic Rhinitis in the pig (50%) and briefly describe the control measures

you would implement to monitor and reduce its occurrence in a commercial herd producing pigs for slaughter (50%).

 

  1. Describe the complications that can arise as a result of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse.

 

  1. List 4 (four) diseases and disorders that may be confused with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in adult cattle. (25% for each.)

 

  1. Write short notes on methods to control blowfly strike in sheep in the UK.
    1a You are presented with a 3-year-old female Standard Poodle dog with a one month history of weight loss, depression, poor appetite and intermittent vomiting. Your clinical examination of the dog reveals a heart rate of 60. There are no other significant clinical findings. You suspect the dog has hypoadrenocorticism.
    •      List 5 (five) differential diagnoses (apart from hypoadrenocorticism) that you would consider in this case. (25%)
    •      Describe what changes you would expect to be present on routine haematology and blood biochemistry if this dog did have hypoadrenocorticism. (30%)
    •      Describe how you would confirm the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in this dog. (25%)
    •      Describe how you would treat hypoadrenocorticism and how you would monitor the effect of the treatment. (20%)
    OR
    1b You are presented with a thin 12-year-old neutered female cat with a one month history of weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Despite these signs the cat’s appetite has remained satisfactory. On clinical examination the heart rate is 180 per minute.
    • List 5 (five) conditions from which this cat might be suffering. (25%)
    The next day routine serum biochemistry and haematology demonstrate marked azotaemia and hyperphosphatemia. The owner is keen for you to treat the cat to the best of your ability. The cat is not sufficiently dehydrated to warrant hospitalisation.
    •              Name 3 (three) major complications that may develop in this cat in the coming months.(30%)
    •              Name 5 (five) therapeutic options that are available for this cat (in the UK). For each option

    provide reasons for the use of this option and any possible complications. (45%)

    2a You are called to see a 5-year-old Holstein cow that calved, unassisted, yesterday. This morning she is dull, unwilling to stand, is off her food and has an enlarged back left udder quarter.   The cow has a heart rate of 100 beats per minute and no rumen turnover. You suspect the cow has peracute E. Coli mastitis.
    •      Outline the pathophysiology of this condition. (15%)
    •      How would you assess the animal’s condition further and how could you confirm the diagnosis? (30%)
    •      Describe in detail how would you treat this animal? (40%)
    •      What advice would you give the client on preventing the disease occurring in another cow in the future? (15%)
    OR
    2b Your client has a flock of 40 pedigree Texel ewes, lambing indoors in January, to produce pedigree rams sold for breeding. Over several years the flock has had problems with lameness, particularly in the older ewes, but also in the rams being prepared for sale. The client suspects foot rot, although some of the growing lambs are also troubled with scald. The client asks you to help in controlling the number of lameness cases and has read in a farming journal that it is possible to eliminate foot rot, and wants to try to achieve this.
    •        Describe the clinical signs that would confirm the client’s diagnosis in each group of animals. (20%)
    •        Detail the methods you would use to control footrot in this flock. (80%). You may summarise your plans by means of a table or diagram.
    3a You are called to visit a large commercial livery yard to see an 8-year-old 16 hands Warmblood gelding, that has recently been purchased by a new owner. It is used for recreational riding and has been vaccinated against equine influenza. The horse has developed a cough and bilateral nasal discharge since arriving on the yard. You suspect that the animal may have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO).
    •              Give 3 (three) reasons why you think this disease has become evident after purchase. (20%)
    •      Outline the significant findings you would expect on clinical examination of an animal with COPD. (20%)
    •      What are the medical treatment options for this disease? (30%)
    •              What advice would you give the client regarding managing the disease in the future? (30%)
    OR
    3b Describe the clinical signs and abnormalities on routine haematology and biochemistry that are commonly seen in canine parvovirus infection. (40%)
    • How would you confirm a diagnosis of canine parvovirus? (10%)
    •              Describe how you would treat a dog with clinical signs of a parvovirus infection. (25%)
    •              List 5 (five) reasons for parvovirus infection to occur in an apparently vaccinated animal.For each reason give an example. (25%)

    MEDICINE

    SECTION B (answer all questions)

     

    1. Write short notes on the pathophysiology of warfarin poisoning in dogs and cats.

     

    1. Describe the radiographic changes that you would expect in a case of megaoesophagus in the dog.

     

    1. Write short notes on the biochemical changes that are found in chronic hepatic diseases in the dog.

     

    1. Write short notes on the management of mitral valve disease in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.

     

    1. Write short notes on the treatment options for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

     

    1. List 6 (six) major causes of chronic weight-loss in goats in the UK (50%) and briefly outline how they

    can be differentiated (50%).

     

    1. Outline the aetiology of Atrophic Rhinitis in the pig (50%) and briefly describe the control measures

    you would implement to monitor and reduce its occurrence in a commercial herd producing pigs for slaughter (50%).

     

    1. Describe the complications that can arise as a result of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse.

     

    1. List 4 (four) diseases and disorders that may be confused with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in adult cattle. (25% for each.)

     

    1. Write short notes on methods to control blowfly strike in sheep in the UK.
      1a You are presented with a 3-year-old female Standard Poodle dog with a one month history of weight loss, depression, poor appetite and intermittent vomiting. Your clinical examination of the dog reveals a heart rate of 60. There are no other significant clinical findings. You suspect the dog has hypoadrenocorticism.
      •      List 5 (five) differential diagnoses (apart from hypoadrenocorticism) that you would consider in this case. (25%)
      •      Describe what changes you would expect to be present on routine haematology and blood biochemistry if this dog did have hypoadrenocorticism. (30%)
      •      Describe how you would confirm the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in this dog. (25%)
      •      Describe how you would treat hypoadrenocorticism and how you would monitor the effect of the treatment. (20%)
      OR
      1b You are presented with a thin 12-year-old neutered female cat with a one month history of weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Despite these signs the cat’s appetite has remained satisfactory. On clinical examination the heart rate is 180 per minute.
      • List 5 (five) conditions from which this cat might be suffering. (25%)
      The next day routine serum biochemistry and haematology demonstrate marked azotaemia and hyperphosphatemia. The owner is keen for you to treat the cat to the best of your ability. The cat is not sufficiently dehydrated to warrant hospitalisation.
      •              Name 3 (three) major complications that may develop in this cat in the coming months.(30%)
      •              Name 5 (five) therapeutic options that are available for this cat (in the UK). For each option

      provide reasons for the use of this option and any possible complications. (45%)

      2a You are called to see a 5-year-old Holstein cow that calved, unassisted, yesterday. This morning she is dull, unwilling to stand, is off her food and has an enlarged back left udder quarter.   The cow has a heart rate of 100 beats per minute and no rumen turnover. You suspect the cow has peracute E. Coli mastitis.
      •      Outline the pathophysiology of this condition. (15%)
      •      How would you assess the animal’s condition further and how could you confirm the diagnosis? (30%)
      •      Describe in detail how would you treat this animal? (40%)
      •      What advice would you give the client on preventing the disease occurring in another cow in the future? (15%)
      OR
      2b Your client has a flock of 40 pedigree Texel ewes, lambing indoors in January, to produce pedigree rams sold for breeding. Over several years the flock has had problems with lameness, particularly in the older ewes, but also in the rams being prepared for sale. The client suspects foot rot, although some of the growing lambs are also troubled with scald. The client asks you to help in controlling the number of lameness cases and has read in a farming journal that it is possible to eliminate foot rot, and wants to try to achieve this.
      •        Describe the clinical signs that would confirm the client’s diagnosis in each group of animals. (20%)
      •        Detail the methods you would use to control footrot in this flock. (80%). You may summarise your plans by means of a table or diagram.
      3a You are called to visit a large commercial livery yard to see an 8-year-old 16 hands Warmblood gelding, that has recently been purchased by a new owner. It is used for recreational riding and has been vaccinated against equine influenza. The horse has developed a cough and bilateral nasal discharge since arriving on the yard. You suspect that the animal may have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO).
      •              Give 3 (three) reasons why you think this disease has become evident after purchase. (20%)
      •      Outline the significant findings you would expect on clinical examination of an animal with COPD. (20%)
      •      What are the medical treatment options for this disease? (30%)
      •              What advice would you give the client regarding managing the disease in the future? (30%)
      OR
      3b Describe the clinical signs and abnormalities on routine haematology and biochemistry that are commonly seen in canine parvovirus infection. (40%)
      • How would you confirm a diagnosis of canine parvovirus? (10%)
      •              Describe how you would treat a dog with clinical signs of a parvovirus infection. (25%)
      •              List 5 (five) reasons for parvovirus infection to occur in an apparently vaccinated animal.For each reason give an example. (25%)

      MEDICINE

      SECTION B (answer all questions)

       

      1. Write short notes on the pathophysiology of warfarin poisoning in dogs and cats.

       

      1. Describe the radiographic changes that you would expect in a case of megaoesophagus in the dog.

       

      1. Write short notes on the biochemical changes that are found in chronic hepatic diseases in the dog.

       

      1. Write short notes on the management of mitral valve disease in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.

       

      1. Write short notes on the treatment options for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

       

      1. List 6 (six) major causes of chronic weight-loss in goats in the UK (50%) and briefly outline how they

      can be differentiated (50%).

       

      1. Outline the aetiology of Atrophic Rhinitis in the pig (50%) and briefly describe the control measures

      you would implement to monitor and reduce its occurrence in a commercial herd producing pigs for slaughter (50%).

       

      1. Describe the complications that can arise as a result of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse.

       

      1. List 4 (four) diseases and disorders that may be confused with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in adult cattle. (25% for each.)

       

      1. Write short notes on methods to control blowfly strike in sheep in the UK.1a You are presented with a 3-year-old female Standard Poodle dog with a one month history of weight loss, depression, poor appetite and intermittent vomiting. Your clinical examination of the dog reveals a heart rate of 60. There are no other significant clinical findings. You suspect the dog has hypoadrenocorticism.• List 5 (five) differential diagnoses (apart from hypoadrenocorticism) that you would consider in this case. (25%)
        • Describe what changes you would expect to be present on routine haematology and blood biochemistry if this dog did have hypoadrenocorticism. (30%)
        • Describe how you would confirm the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in this dog. (25%)
        • Describe how you would treat hypoadrenocorticism and how you would monitor the effect of the treatment. (20%)
        OR
        1b You are presented with a thin 12-year-old neutered female cat with a one month history of weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Despite these signs the cat’s appetite has remained satisfactory. On clinical examination the heart rate is 180 per minute.

        • List 5 (five) conditions from which this cat might be suffering. (25%)

        The next day routine serum biochemistry and haematology demonstrate marked azotaemia and hyperphosphatemia. The owner is keen for you to treat the cat to the best of your ability. The cat is not sufficiently dehydrated to warrant hospitalisation.

        • Name 3 (three) major complications that may develop in this cat in the coming months.
        (30%)
        • Name 5 (five) therapeutic options that are available for this cat (in the UK). For each option
        provide reasons for the use of this option and any possible complications. (45%)

        2a You are called to see a 5-year-old Holstein cow that calved, unassisted, yesterday. This morning she is dull, unwilling to stand, is off her food and has an enlarged back left udder quarter. The cow has a heart rate of 100 beats per minute and no rumen turnover. You suspect the cow has peracute E. Coli mastitis.

        • Outline the pathophysiology of this condition. (15%)
        • How would you assess the animal’s condition further and how could you confirm the diagnosis? (30%)
        • Describe in detail how would you treat this animal? (40%)
        • What advice would you give the client on preventing the disease occurring in another cow in the future? (15%)
        OR
        2b Your client has a flock of 40 pedigree Texel ewes, lambing indoors in January, to produce pedigree rams sold for breeding. Over several years the flock has had problems with lameness, particularly in the older ewes, but also in the rams being prepared for sale. The client suspects foot rot, although some of the growing lambs are also troubled with scald. The client asks you to help in controlling the number of lameness cases and has read in a farming journal that it is possible to eliminate foot rot, and wants to try to achieve this.

        • Describe the clinical signs that would confirm the client’s diagnosis in each group of animals. (20%)
        • Detail the methods you would use to control footrot in this flock. (80%). You may summarise your plans by means of a table or diagram.

        3a You are called to visit a large commercial livery yard to see an 8-year-old 16 hands Warmblood gelding, that has recently been purchased by a new owner. It is used for recreational riding and has been vaccinated against equine influenza. The horse has developed a cough and bilateral nasal discharge since arriving on the yard. You suspect that the animal may have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO).

        • Give 3 (three) reasons why you think this disease has become evident after purchase. (20%)
        • Outline the significant findings you would expect on clinical examination of an animal with COPD. (20%)
        • What are the medical treatment options for this disease? (30%)
        • What advice would you give the client regarding managing the disease in the future? (30%)
        OR
        3b Describe the clinical signs and abnormalities on routine haematology and biochemistry that are commonly seen in canine parvovirus infection. (40%)

        • How would you confirm a diagnosis of canine parvovirus? (10%)
        • Describe how you would treat a dog with clinical signs of a parvovirus infection. (25%)
        • List 5 (five) reasons for parvovirus infection to occur in an apparently vaccinated animal.
        For each reason give an example. (25%)

        MEDICINE
        SECTION B (answer all questions)

        1. Write short notes on the pathophysiology of warfarin poisoning in dogs and cats.

        2. Describe the radiographic changes that you would expect in a case of megaoesophagus in the dog.

        3. Write short notes on the biochemical changes that are found in chronic hepatic diseases in the dog.

        4. Write short notes on the management of mitral valve disease in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.

        5. Write short notes on the treatment options for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

        6. List 6 (six) major causes of chronic weight-loss in goats in the UK (50%) and briefly outline how they
        can be differentiated (50%).

        7. Outline the aetiology of Atrophic Rhinitis in the pig (50%) and briefly describe the control measures
        you would implement to monitor and reduce its occurrence in a commercial herd producing pigs for slaughter (50%).

        8. Describe the complications that can arise as a result of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse.

        9. List 4 (four) diseases and disorders that may be confused with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in adult cattle. (25% for each.)

        10. Write short notes on methods to control blowfly strike in sheep in the UK. 1a You are presented with a 3-year-old female Standard Poodle dog with a one month history of weight loss, depression, poor appetite and intermittent vomiting. Your clinical examination of the dog reveals a heart rate of 60. There are no other significant clinical findings. You suspect the dog has hypoadrenocorticism.

        • List 5 (five) differential diagnoses (apart from hypoadrenocorticism) that you would consider in this case. (25%)
        • Describe what changes you would expect to be present on routine haematology and blood biochemistry if this dog did have hypoadrenocorticism. (30%)
        • Describe how you would confirm the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in this dog. (25%)
        • Describe how you would treat hypoadrenocorticism and how you would monitor the effect of the treatment. (20%)
        OR
        1b You are presented with a thin 12-year-old neutered female cat with a one month history of weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Despite these signs the cat’s appetite has remained satisfactory. On clinical examination the heart rate is 180 per minute.

        • List 5 (five) conditions from which this cat might be suffering. (25%)

        The next day routine serum biochemistry and haematology demonstrate marked azotaemia and hyperphosphatemia. The owner is keen for you to treat the cat to the best of your ability. The cat is not sufficiently dehydrated to warrant hospitalisation.

        • Name 3 (three) major complications that may develop in this cat in the coming months.
        (30%)
        • Name 5 (five) therapeutic options that are available for this cat (in the UK). For each option
        provide reasons for the use of this option and any possible complications. (45%)

        2a You are called to see a 5-year-old Holstein cow that calved, unassisted, yesterday. This morning she is dull, unwilling to stand, is off her food and has an enlarged back left udder quarter. The cow has a heart rate of 100 beats per minute and no rumen turnover. You suspect the cow has peracute E. Coli mastitis.

        • Outline the pathophysiology of this condition. (15%)
        • How would you assess the animal’s condition further and how could you confirm the diagnosis? (30%)
        • Describe in detail how would you treat this animal? (40%)
        • What advice would you give the client on preventing the disease occurring in another cow in the future? (15%)
        OR
        2b Your client has a flock of 40 pedigree Texel ewes, lambing indoors in January, to produce pedigree rams sold for breeding. Over several years the flock has had problems with lameness, particularly in the older ewes, but also in the rams being prepared for sale. The client suspects foot rot, although some of the growing lambs are also troubled with scald. The client asks you to help in controlling the number of lameness cases and has read in a farming journal that it is possible to eliminate foot rot, and wants to try to achieve this.

        • Describe the clinical signs that would confirm the client’s diagnosis in each group of animals. (20%)
        • Detail the methods you would use to control footrot in this flock. (80%). You may summarise your plans by means of a table or diagram.

        3a You are called to visit a large commercial livery yard to see an 8-year-old 16 hands Warmblood gelding, that has recently been purchased by a new owner. It is used for recreational riding and has been vaccinated against equine influenza. The horse has developed a cough and bilateral nasal discharge since arriving on the yard. You suspect that the animal may have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO).

        • Give 3 (three) reasons why you think this disease has become evident after purchase. (20%)
        • Outline the significant findings you would expect on clinical examination of an animal with COPD. (20%)
        • What are the medical treatment options for this disease? (30%)
        • What advice would you give the client regarding managing the disease in the future? (30%)
        OR
        3b Describe the clinical signs and abnormalities on routine haematology and biochemistry that are commonly seen in canine parvovirus infection. (40%)

        • How would you confirm a diagnosis of canine parvovirus? (10%)
        • Describe how you would treat a dog with clinical signs of a parvovirus infection. (25%)
        • List 5 (five) reasons for parvovirus infection to occur in an apparently vaccinated animal.
        For each reason give an example. (25%)

        MEDICINE
        SECTION B (answer all questions)

        1. Write short notes on the pathophysiology of warfarin poisoning in dogs and cats.

        2. Describe the radiographic changes that you would expect in a case of megaoesophagus in the dog.

        3. Write short notes on the biochemical changes that are found in chronic hepatic diseases in the dog.

        4. Write short notes on the management of mitral valve disease in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.

        5. Write short notes on the treatment options for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

        6. List 6 (six) major causes of chronic weight-loss in goats in the UK (50%) and briefly outline how they
        can be differentiated (50%).

        7. Outline the aetiology of Atrophic Rhinitis in the pig (50%) and briefly describe the control measures
        you would implement to monitor and reduce its occurrence in a commercial herd producing pigs for slaughter (50%).

        8. Describe the complications that can arise as a result of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse.

        9. List 4 (four) diseases and disorders that may be confused with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in adult cattle. (25% for each.)

        10. Write short notes on methods to control blowfly strike in sheep in the UK.

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