Task 1: Name and describe the two primary perspectives of the mind-body problem and provide a brief example from history to illustrate each. How is the mind-body debate reflected in health psychology today? Identify and define the two current models and outline their role in health and illness.
Two perspectives is Monism ( Mind-body as one) and Dualism ( Mind-body as separate).Monism stone age and Middle age. Dualism Ancient Greece/Rome and Renaissance.Current models Biopsychosocial model for Monism and Biomedical model for Dualism.
Name and describe 1-2 perspectives, with brief examples for each. Identify current representation in health psychology, with definitions. Detailed discussion of role in health and illness, with examples. Use 2 or more reference sources. Provide competent APA citations and referencing. 300 words. One of the references is Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. No older than 5 years.
Task2: a)The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS; Selye, 1979) is a model that describes the body’s short and long-term reactions to stress. In your own words, define (describe) the key elements of the GAS.
b)Briefly define (describe) the transactional model of stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). How does it differ from the GAS?
c)The GAS has been criticised on a number of counts. Outline two criticisms of this model.
Define both the General Adaptation Syndrome and the Transactional Model of Stress. Describe 3 or more differences between the two models, with supporting evidence. Describe 2 -3 evidence-based criticisms for the General Adaptation Syndrome. Provide competent APA citations and referencing.Use 2-3 references no oder than 5 years. 500 words. One of the references is Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
The Transactional Model of Stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984)
Stress is a subjective experience. The key principle of psychological theories of stress is that an individual’s appraisal of stress is important in determining whether a situation is considered to be stressful or not. In cognitive appraisal, people evaluate threat in two ways: Firstly, whether a demand threatens their wellbeing (Primary appraisal) and, secondly, whether they have the resources available for meeting such a demand (Secondary appraisal) (Sarafino & Smith, 2014, pp. 59-61).
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS; Selye, 1974)
The underlying concept for the General Adaptation Syndrome is that living organisms possess an innate drive to maintain internal balances i.e. homeostasis. GAS represents a universal and non-specific response to stress, therefore applicable whether the stressor was pleasant or unpleasant. Selye’s model (1974), outlined in Sarafino and Smith (2014, pp. 62-65), therefore proposed three stages of the stress response:
Alarm reaction This is the initial response to awareness of a stressor which can lead to intense physiological arousal in order to mobile the body’s resources in order to resist the stressor e.g. heart rate may increase. This level of arousal cannot be sustained for long periods of time (Sarafino & Smith, 2014, p. 63).
Stage of resistance This stage represents adaptation to the stressor. Physiological arousal continues with increased vulnerability to disease. When the body is continually adapting to stressors, the effects, including increased cortisol and raised blood pressure, is called allostatic load, which creates wear on the body and limits its ability to adapt to future stressors (Sarafino & Smith, 2014, p. 63).
Stage of exhaustion If the resistance stage lasts too long, exhaustion can occur following depletion of bodily resources and energy. The ability to resist stress declines and there is increased likelihood of disease and, possibly, death (Sarafino & Smith, 2014, p. 63).
There are four factors that are influential in overall amount of physiological arousal: amount of exposure, magnitude of reactivity, rate of recovery and resource restoration (Sarafino & Smith, 2014, p. 63).