In Adults, Does Cholesterol Screening vs. No Screening Decrease the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease? Custom Essay

Based on the articles in the Annotated Bibliography
and any other articles retrieved students will write a narrative review of their research topic. This review must follow AMA format.
Since AMA does not provide much guidance for course papers as opposed to those being submitted for publication here is what is expected.

1.All papers should be in 12 point font, either Arial or Times New Roman

2.A cover page with your name, research topic, course and date each centered on a separate line – these should be in the vertical center of the page

3.There should be a running head with a short version of your title/question and the page number on all pages

4.The abstract may be either on a separate page or on the first page of your review. – The running head should be on all pages.

5.All in-text citations should follow AMA format of super-scripted numbers.

6.The Bibliography of all works cited in the review should be on a separate page. The references should be numbered and appear in the order cited in the paper.

These are just highlights of preparing a paper in AMA style. Please be sure to consult the AMA manual if you are unsure of how to proceed.

It is better to write clearly and concisely than at greater length.

20% – Adherence to AMA style.
20% – Relevance of the articles selected for the bibliography and review (based on date and type).
10% – Clarity of the writing, and lack of mistakes in grammar, punctuation and usage in the narrative review
30% – The critical thinking and analysis exhibited in the review paper.
5% of the grade will be deducted for any part of the assignment handed in late.

MORE INSTRUCTIONS:

BELOW IS THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ONE OF THE WRITERS DID FOR ME. THE WRITER MUST GO TO EACH “FULL ARTICLE” HE FOUND LAST TIME AND START DOING THE NARRATIVE REVIEW USING THE 8 ARTICLES BASED ON THOSE 8 BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

THIS IS THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

In Adults, Does Cholesterol Screening vs. No Screening Decrease the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease?

Search Strategy
The eight articles used in this annotation were searched from the PubMed database. The Boolean search was carried out using the Boolean operator AND. The keywords used include cholesterol screening, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, LDL, familial hypercholesterolemia, and LDL-C. The search gave over 1000 results. The relevance of the results was scaled down by limiting the search to articles published between 2010 and 2015. Additionally, the search entailed using quotation marks, for instance, (“coronary heart disease” AND “cholesterol screening” 2010). Finally, the search strategy entailed going through the search results derived using the aforementioned strategies and finding the articles that were easier to interpret and relevant to the study as “Sort by Most Recent” criteria.

Annotated Bibliography

Artac MD, Majeed A, Car J, Millett C. Effectiveness of a national cardiovascular disease risk assessment program (NHS Health Check): results after one year. Prev Med. 2013; 57(2):129-34. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.05.002
The article evaluated the effectiveness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment program in reducing CVD risk. The article employed data from the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check. The article reports that cholesterol screening reduces the incidences of CHD because patients with a complete Health Check showed a significant reduction in average CVD score for TC levels and lipid ratios following a year of the intervention. The article informs that screening for CVD risk factors such as cholesterol reduces case of CVD.

Bell D, Pang J, Burrows S, Bates T, van Bockxmeer F, Hooper A, Watts, G. Effectiveness of genetic cascade screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia using a centrally co-ordinated clinical service: an Australian experience. Atherosclerosis. 2015; 239 (1): 93-100. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.036.
The article reviewed the usefulness of genetic cascade screening. FH is a genetic condition associated with LDL-C and those with the disorder are at an increased risk of CHD. The article reported that genetic cascade screening reduces the occurrence of CHD because after the screening, previously undetected and untreated first-hand cases of Familial hypercholesterolemia reported a nearly 50% average reduction in LDL-C after medication. The article is useful because it shows the link between genetics, LDL-cholesterol, and CHD.

Deus JR, Ferraz A, Oesterreich S, Schmitz W, Shinzato M. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients from Mato Grosso do Sul. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2015; S0482-5004 (15): 00068-6. doi:10.1016/j.rbr.2015.02.001
The article is essential because it identified the risk factors for cardiovascular illness. The article included a sample of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. According to the article, screening the risk factors linked with cardiovascular diseases, such as total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides could reduce the incidence of the diseases.

Goldfarb M, Slobod D, Dufresne L, Brophy J, Sniderman A, Thanassoulis G. Screening Strategies and Primary Prevention Interventions in Relatives of People With Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Can J Cardiol. 2015; 31(5): 649-57. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2015.02.019
The article is a systematic review and metal analysis trying to determine the effect of dedicated screening and disease management for persons at high risk for cardiovascular diseases. The articles included in this meta-analysis, and systematic review were retrieved from the Medline, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases and dated from the inception of the databases up to June 30, 2014. The meta-analysis and systematic review indicated that screening for risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an improvement in the diet reduced the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The article is valuable because the articles used were retrieved from credible research databases, representing years of research.

Kuklina EV, Yoon PW, Keenan NL. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors and screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults, United States, 1999-2006. Ann Fam Med. 2010; 8(4):327-33. doi: 10.1370/afm.1137.
The article reviews the implications of screening for cholesterol among adults with coronary heart disease, CHD equivalents, or at least one of the CHD risk factors. The article used data collected within 7 years (1999-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The article reported that high levels of LDL-C are a risk factor for CHD and cholesterol screening identifies these factors. The results could be interpreted to mean the identification of CHD risk factors informs the management of cardiovascular disease; hence reduce the incidences of CHD.

Miller P, Martin S, Toth P, Santos R, Blaha M, Nasir K, Jones S. Screening and advanced lipid phenotyping in familial hypercholesterolemia: The Very Large Database of Lipids Study-17 (VLDL-17). J Clin Lipidol. 2015; 9(5): 676-83. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2015.06.015.
The article compared Friedewald-estimated “bad cholesterol” to biologic “bad cholesterol” among persons with hereditary hypercholesterolemia. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The article confirmed that screening for cholesterol reduces incidences of CHD because those who screened positive for hereditary hypercholesterolemia had correlated high levels of Friedewald and biologic LDL-C. The data used in the article were from a Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL); hence increasing the validity of the results.

Petrova D, Garcia-Retamero R, Catena A. Lonely hearts don’t get checked: On the role of social support in screening for cardiovascular risk. Prev Med.2015; 9 (81): 202-208. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.09.002
The article reviewed the factors that influence adherence to cardiovascular disease screening. Regular screening of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases can help prevent the disease incidences. The article identified poverty, marital status (being widowed or single), tobacco smoking, the absence of cardiovascular risk, and use of alcohol as factors influencing cardiovascular disease screening. The article indicated that persons without the factors were twice likely to undergo cholesterol screening. The article used data from a Spanish National Health Survey.

Teimouri A, Iraj B, Amini M, Hovsepian S. The effect of quality of care on cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med. 2014; 5(11):1432-8.
The article evaluated the quality of care among diabetes patients and the ways it influences the control of cardiovascular risk factors such as cholesterol. The article used data from persons diagnosed with diabetes and linked cholesterol screening with decreased incidence of coronary heart disease. The article reported that after screening the cholesterol levels significantly reduced among patients who adopted a regular course of treatment compared to those without. Moreover, treatment reduced the cardiovascular risk factors cholesterol and LDL significantly. The article is important as it indicates that managing some illnesses can also help alleviate the related micro and macrovascular complication such as CHD.

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