1. Pay particular attention to evidence that supports the problem, issue, or deficit, and your proposed solution.
Hint: The Topic 2 readings provide appraisal questions that will assist you to efficiently and effectively analyze each article.
Refer to “Sample Format for Review of Literature,” “RefWorks,” and “Topic 2: Checklist.”
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
HERE ARE THE SOURCES THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT…..
Babaee Beigi, M. A., Zibaeenezhad, M., Javad, Aghasadeghi, K., Jokar, A., Shekarforoush, S., & Khazraei, H. (2014). The effect of educational programs on hypertension management. International Cardiovascular Research Journal, 8(3), 94-98. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=2012661314&site=eds-live&scope=site
This article provides statistical data showing the importance of educating patients on hypertension and its meaning. 66% of the surveyed were unaware they had hypertension. The issue was most did not take it serious and a mere 31% knew what hypertension was. I believe this article provides evidence to support my claim.
Chor, D. ó., Pinho Ribeiro, A. L., Sá Carvalho, M., Duncan, B. B., Andrade Lotufo, P., Araújo Nobre, A., . . . Mill, J. G. (2015). Prevalence, awareness, treatment and influence of socioeconomic variables on control of high blood pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brazil study. Plos One, 10(6), 1-14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127382
Over a 2 year course, this study examined 15,105 patients. It revealed that there is limited awareness and education offered, especially in lower socioeconomic groups showing that education is the key to controlling ones health. The prevalence of hypertension in adults is 29.2% of males and 24.8% of females have it with a total of more than 1 billion individuals worldwide. This article provides evidence to support my claim.
Dreisbach, A. W. (2014) Epidemiology of hypertension. Medscape. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1928048-overview
This article is a review of surveys carried out in various countries from the year 1988 to 2005 indicating prevalence of hypertension among various age groups in the various countries. It is a statistical article providing information on morbidity, mortality and prevalence. This article provides evidence that supports my claim.
Gee, M. E., Bienek, A., McAlister, F. A., Robitaille, C., Joffres, M., Tremblay, M. S., Campbell, N. R. C. (2012). Clinical research: Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 28, 375-382. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2011.12.012
This article is a 2 year study that states that those with the lowest of income and a less than high school education were associated with the presence of hypertension. This article touches on the lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure but not enough evidence is provided to support my claim. The statistical data does not offer enough support either.
Grad, I., Mastalerz-Migas, A., & Kilis-Pstrusinska, K. (2015). Factors associated with knowledge of hypertension among adolescents: Implications for preventive education programs in primary care. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1-8. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1773-7
This article was a 2 month study on children to adolescents and the prevalence of hypertension leading into adulthood. The determination was the importance of teaching what hypertension is at a young age in order to reduce the occurrence in adulthood. The study surveyed 250 students with the results being only 13% had knowledge of hypertension. The results also yielded the relationship between global hypertension and the level of education. Although the age group is younger than planned, this article provides evidence to support my claim.
Guessous, I., Bochud, M., Theler, J., Gaspoz, J., & Pechère-Bertschi, A. (2012). 1999-2009 trends in prevalence, unawareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Geneva, Switzerland. Plos One, 7(6), e39877-e39877. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039877
This study took place over 10 years assessing and interviewing a total of 9,215 both male and female participants. 500 male and 500 female were solicited yearly to review trends. They were interviewed, weighted, measured and surveyed to collect medical history such as smoking. The ages ranged from 35 years to 74 years old. This study supports my claim as they were able to see a decrease in unawareness between 1999-2009 of hypertension and its risks showing improvement.
Lauzière, T., A., Chevarie, N., Poirier, M., Utzschneider, A., & Bélanger, M. (2013). Effects of an interdisciplinary education program on hypertension: A pilot study. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(2), 12-19. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=2012075204&site=eds-live&scope=site
A 6 month study of a pilot education program focused on teaching hypertension shows a significant decrease in high blood pressure among the participants. The researchers of this study believe educating and addressing hypertension will help prevent hypertension without relying exclusively on pharmaceuticals. The researchers believe a healthy lifestyle is absolutely proven to prevent and treat hypertension. This research article is the basis of my claim that educating the community on hypertension will show vast improvements and help decrease medical costs.
Lu, C. H., Tang, S. T, Lei, Y. X, Zhang, M. Q., Lin, W. Q., Ding, S. H. & Wang, P. X. (2015). Community-based interventions in hypertensive patients: a comparison of three health education strategies. BioMed Centre Public Health. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1401-6
This article was a 2 year randomized non-blinded trial of 360 patients with hypertension. The participants were enrolled into a community health service center in China. Participants were randomly assigned one of three community based health education programs for 2years. The three programs were monthly regular didactic lecture, self-learning reading and monthly interactive education workshop. The three groups were compared based on proportional changes in various characteristics one being a knowledge score related to hypertension and adherence to antihypertensive treatment. The results showed that in community based health education programs interactive education workshop may be the most effective strategy. It had favorable results compared to the other programs. This article provides evidence of an effective strategy in for creating awareness. It however does not adequately support my claim.
Masoud, M. M. et al (2013). Prevalence, awareness and risk factors of hypertension in a large
cohort of Iranian adult population. Journal of hypertension, 31(7)
This article was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Golestan Cohort Study of 50, 045 subjects. In the study, potential correlates of hypertension and its awareness were analyzed by logistic regression adjusted several characteristics literacy and awareness being among them. From the study 46% of hypertensive patients were aware of their disease status, 17% of which were on treatment and only 32.1% of those on treatment had controlled hypertension. This article supports my claim.
Mazzaro, C. C. et al (2014). Dietary interventions and blood pressure in Latin America-Systematic review and meta-analysis. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. 102(4): 345
This article was a systematic review of articles published in various electronic databases like Choncrane, Medline/PubMed, CINAHL and web of science among others. Article included in the study were those addressing dietary interventions in Latin American adults with hypertension. Parallel studies were done to assess arterial blood pressure prior to and after intervention. The results showed that dietary changes had a homogenous effect on blood pressure. This article does not provide evidence to support my claim because of the small sample size used in the study and failure to address the subject of awareness among subjects.
Oliveira, T. L., Miranda, L. P, Fernandes, P. S. Caldeira A. P. (2013). Effectiveness of education in health in the non-medication treatment of arterial hypertension. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem 26(2). Retrieved from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-2100213000200012
This article was an interventional, randomized, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study of 261 adults above 18years in Januaria, Brazil. The study analyzed habits related to nutrition, physical activity and use of tobacco and alcohol as well as anthropometric and blood pressure levels before and after performing a group health education in the subjects. The results showed effectiveness in incentivizing adherence to non-pharmacologic treatment of arterial hypertension. This article supports my claim.
Santos, A., Aylla, Almeida Dutra, B., Barbosa Santos, C., da, S. B., Alves Fonseca, M., & Santos Barros, R. (2014). Health education in the prevention of hypertension in adolescence: Report of experience. Journal of Nursing UFPE / Revista De Enfermagem UFPE, 8(9), 3212-3216. doi:10.5205/reuol.5960-55386-1-ED.08092014333
Because longitudinal studies have shown children with high blood pressure are most likely to become adults with high blood pressure, this study discusses the importance of early education. A 3 day educational study on hypertension included 193 participants making them aware of the risks and teaching prevention took place with success. This study aids in proving my claim as it shows the importance of education in order to increase awareness in prevention and decrease risk factors early on.
Sharma, M., & Hakim, A. M. (2011). The management of hypertension for primary stroke prevention: A proposed approach. International Journal of Stroke, 6(2), 144-149. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00569.x
This article reviews the large increase in hypertension and the roles that aid in the prevalence. It states the lack of public awareness and education significantly impacting the ever increasing population with hypertension. It discusses the need for the health care community to step up as there are not enough locations offering blood pressure checks. The researchers discuss innovative ways to entice the community to be more aware with incentives to maintain a healthy blood pressure. I believe this article does have enough evidence to support my claim as it clearly states lack of awareness and education is a problem.
Shaw, R., Bosworth, H. B., (2012) Baseline medication adherence and blood pressure in a 24 month longitudinal hypertension study. Journal of Clinical Nursing 21(10): 1401-6: doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03859
This article is a longitudinal study aiming to identify the feasibility and predictive validity of an easy and quick self-reported measure of medication adherence and to identify characteristics of people with hypertension that may warrant increase attentiveness by nurses to address hypertensive self-management needs. A sample of 159 hypertensive patients in two primary care clinics was used. The study found out that non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy at baseline was predictive of elevated systolic blood pressure to 24 months of post-baseline. This article does not provide evidence to support my claim.
Shrivastava, S. R., Shrivastava, P. S., & Ramasamy, J. (2014). The determinants and scope of public health interventions to tackle the global problem of hypertension. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(7), 807-812. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=97359161&site=eds-live&scope=site
This study analyzed 51 articles in order to explore the multitude of hypertension and its complications worldwide. This study, like many others suggests that hypertension is a preventable condition and can be done by community based education. The study reflects on the necessity of a comprehensive national program for non-communicable diseases stating it should be heavily supported by national campaigns to spread awareness. Although this study does not survey participants, it is able to support my claim in that it addresses the necessity of educating those about their health and risks of an unhealthy life style in order to obtain a healthy way of life free of a preventable illness