Adult with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

List of problems and interventions for Essay Case Option 2 – the adult case Problem 1: Ineffective Airway Clearance Nursing Interventions Auscultate breath sounds. The nurse should note adventitious breath sounds such as crackles, wheezes and rhonchi. Rationale for this intervention: some level of bronchospasm is present with obstructions within the airway and might or might not be manifested with adventitious sounds (Avsar, 2011). Evaluate or monitor the respiratory rate. The nurse should note the inspiratory/expiratory ratio. Rationale for this intervention: Tachypnia is commonly present to some extent and might be pronounced on admission or during stress or concurrent acute infectious process. Reduce environmental pollution, for instance by minimizing smoke and dust. Rationale. Dust and smoke are precipitators of allergic type respiratory reactions that could aggravate or set off onset of acute episode (Vijayan, 2013). Problem 2: Impaired Gas Exchange Nursing Interventions Evaluate respiratory depth and rate. The nurse should note the use of accessory muscles, inability to converse or speak, and pursed-lip breathing. Rationale: this intervention is important in assessing the extent of respiratory distress and/or chronicity of the illness process (Stone et al., 2014).

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Locating relevant information in CINAHL database

Locating relevant information in CINAHL database CINAHL provides a wide array of journals to choose from in nursing and allied health fields, with some of the journals including searchable cited references. One of the options it to search through CIHAHL headings and the method is context sensitive. The database allows one to narrow down on whether to first look into the general headings or the specific headings through a tree structure format.

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Late Adult/Death Paper

Late Adult/Death Paper Death is inevitable and this is not a pleasing statement to those who still are still young but to the aged; they have to struggle with this statement day in day out as some see their day of death getting closer. To society aging is generally undesirable due to the fact that it is regarded a step close to death. They view aging as the period of physical illness, senility, and being helpless; this makes people fear and deject aging. Development is a systematic change that people have between conception and death; late adult is almost near death but doesn’t mean one is already dead. The areas involved include physical, cognitive and psychosocial development. This paper tackles the issue of late adulthood and death of an individual as a culmination of the life span developmental process. It brings out ageism and the stereotypes associated with late adulthood; how the aged can be able to live a healthy and wellness life; the importance of relationships and social interactions; and the cultural and personal attitude about death and dignity during this period of late adulthood.

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Federal Agencies and Gestational Diabetes

Federal agencies and gestational diabetes At the federal level, there are various departments that deal with gestational diabetes. Additionally, the American Diabetes Association works with Congress to deal with various types of diabetes. Even though, the main focus is type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there have been calls for more urgent action to educate and inform mothers about the risk of gestational diabetes. In any case, there are long term consequences associated with gestational diabetes, and hence the recommendations to mothers are important in overcoming health complications (Catalano et al., 2003)

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False Claims Act

False Claims Act The False Claims Act of 1863 offer whistle-blowers rewards for disclosing fraud committed against the US government. This act was enacted in response to the rampant abuses by defense contractors who were supplying the government with Medicaid during the civil war (Carson, 2008). The False Claims Act called on individuals to bring to justice those found defrauding the government. Their role was to bring “qui tam” suits against those found defrauding the government. Under this act, both civil and criminal penalties could be assessed against any individual found guilty of defrauding the government. This act helps in controlling cost associated with Medicaid programs bringing to justice whoever found presenting false claims to the government. In addition, this Act ensured that persons found guilty of defrauding the government paid double the damages they caused the government. Again, defrauders had to pay a fine of $ 2,000 for false claim.

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Costing techniques in health care organizations

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Co-relational Methods

Co-relational Methods A confounding variable is an unconnected variable in a numerical model that either positively or negatively shows a relationship with both the dependent variable as well as the independent variable (Johnston, 2001). The perception of the relationship between the dependent and the independent variable has always been misapproximated as a result of failure to give an account of a confounding feature known as the spurious relationship and failure in approximation in this case is termed as omitted variable bias. Correlation on the other hand is an evaluation of two continuous statistical variables.

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Advantages and Disadvantages on Different Forms of Health Care Data

Advantages and disadvantages on different forms of health care data Aggregate data Advantages Aggregate healthcare data helps health officials and researchers to promote public health through creating awareness and improving patient safety after collecting data on diverse health populations (Tan, 2001). Helps to cut on patient care cost, since aggregated health care research makes it easier to recommend treatments and procedures in a cost effective manner as it would be more expensive for the average person to pay if there is aggregate health data.

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